Liens de la semaine (weekly)

  •  » Vous ne pouvez pas construire une stratégie différenciatrice basée sur des données historiques. La satisfaction et la fidélisation client sont certes essentielles au succès d’une entreprise, mais aujourd’hui ce n’est pas suffisant. « 

    tags: customer customersatisfaction experience









        Offrez-leur des expériences extraordinaires.
    • Les entreprises doivent faire de leurs clients des « super fans » et non pas exclusivement des clients satisfaits. Pour avoir des « super fans », n’hésitez pas à  être transparent. Les clients échanges entre-eux via les réseaux sociaux et les communautés, il est donc inutile de faire taire les détracteurs.
  • « This is an issue I’ve been tracking, pretty much from the moment enterprise social computing hit the stage (later to become “Enterprise 2.0€³, and what Dachis Group talk about now in the broader context of Social Business Design €“ see some of the conversations around the Connected Company in particular).

    The short answer is yes, viral adoption can work BUT only in certain situations. This is my attempt to pin down some of the factors I’ve observed out in the field. »

    tags: socialsoftware socialbusiness enterprise2.0 adoption virality

    • Competing Solutions
    • Late Adopters
    • Works for one, but not another
    • Lack of Customisation
    • Growing Too Fast
    • Internal Politics / Lack of Budget
    • I think a completely viral adoption approach is a big gamble when really what organisations need is an iterative approach that allows for the best solution to emerge.
      • L&D is too slow to respond to their needs
      • courses are not the most appropriate way to solve their problems
      • they don’t want to have to leave the workflow for the solution
      • e-learning frequently annoys adult learners as it treats them like idiots
      • and they don’t want to have Big Brother breathing down their necks monitoring and tracking their every move.
    • An approach that is NOT about designing and delivering courses, but is about working with individuals and teams at the grass roots to both encourage and support continuous learning practices as well as to identify more appropriate solutions to business and performance problems through non-training interventions.
  • « When SharePoint 2010 arrived in the marketplace, the platform included new social capabilities to improve productivity and collaboration. However, as the consumer social web exploded, it became clear that the 2010 platform only provided the basic building blocks of social computing. As many organizations are now making social collaboration a priority, it’s important to dispel myths and provide a reality-based understanding of SharePoint 2010 as a social computing platform. »

    tags: sharepoint socialsoftware communities enterprisesocialsoftware socialnetwork enterprisesocialnetworks

    • Myth #1: SharePoint 2010 enables you to build communities.
    • While you might think you already have community sites on SharePoint, it’s more likely they are team sites open to a larger audience. Community focuses on knowledge and people. Community is more about the ability to engage in conversations, surface relationships, and subscribe to activities that take place within an individual network or shared space. Community aggregates events, showcases expertise, recognizes people for their efforts and engagement, includes rich digital media and the convenience of accessibility from any device.
    • Myth #2: People Search allows you to find experts.
    • The means for finding experts in SharePoint 2010 is to search user profiles. As the name implies, People Search in SharePoint simply enables search across a broad scope of profile attributes just like an organization directory
    • Myth #3: SharePoint as a social platform is expensive and complex to deploy.
    • Anytime you hear that social on SharePoint is expensive and complex, you should ask “compared to what”? Are
    • Myth #4: Social is a stand-alone project and technology solution.
    • However, despite SharePoint’s social shortcomings, the building blocks are there and will only get better over time. Do you really want to have another repository to secure and govern? Duplicate user profiles? Duplicate hardware? Disparate UIs? How ready is your organization for “social” change?
    • Myth #5: Technology will make you social.
    • The reality here is that creating a social enterprise requires more than SharePoint or any technology by itself. Before you buy into a social vendor’s marketing pitch welcoming you to the social enterprise or promoting some new way to run your business, you need to determine what your objectives are.
  • « Management is the least efficient activity in your organization.

    Think of the countless hours that team leaders, department heads, and vice presidents devote to supervising the work of others. Most managers are hardworking; the problem doesn’t lie with them. The inefficiency stems from a top-heavy management model that is both cumbersome and costly. « 

    tags: management marketplaces markets supervision hierarchy decisionmaking

    • Their job is to keep the organization from collapsing under the weight of its own complexity. Assuming that each manager earns three times the average salary of a first-level employee, direct management costs would account for 33% of the payroll. Any way you cut it, management is expensive.
    • Give someone monarchlike authority, and sooner or later there will be a royal screwup. A related problem is that the most powerful managers are the ones furthest from frontline realities. All too often, decisions made on an Olympian peak prove to be unworkable on the ground.
    • Third, a multitiered management structure means more approval layers and slower responses. In their eagerness to exercise authority, managers often impede, rather than expedite, decision making.
    • markets work well when the needs of each party are simple, stable, and easy to specify, but they’re less effective when interactions are complex
    • Managers do what markets cannot; they amalgamate thousands of disparate contributions into a single product or service
    • Wouldn’t it be great if we could achieve high levels of coordination without a supervisory superstructure? Wouldn’t it be terrific if we could get the freedom and flexibility of an open market with the control and coordination of a tightly knit hierarchy? If only we could manage without managers.
  • « Afin de soutenir la croissance et la performance de son organisation, Danone a mis en place, dès 2008, son réseau social interne (sur logiciel IBM Connections). »

    tags: danone casestudies socialnetworks danone2.0 decisionmaking IBMconnections selfexpression collaboration networking problemsolving reversementoring mentoring

    • nous avons cherché à  définir leurs attentes. La connexion, le collaboratif, l’accélération des prises de décision et l’expression de soi ont émergé comme priorités.
    • Aujourd’hui, près de 30.000 personnes s’y sont connectées, et il compte plus de 10.000 utilisateurs réguliers et 250 communautés actives. »
    • le module « message in a bottle » (message à  la mer) permet de connecter des salariés ayant des problèmes à  ceux ayant des solutions
    • Danone 2.0 se pose comme un outil indispensable au networking, valeur ancrée depuis longtemps dans la culture de la multinationale.
    •  Pour accompagner le déploiement de l’outil, nous avons misé sur l’expertise de nos jeunes collaborateurs et eu recours au mentorat inversé
    •  les utilisateurs les plus actifs du réseau ne sont pas nécessairement les plus jeunes 
  • « Dans un article précédent, je vous ai présenté le modèle 70/20/10, selon lequel le développement des compétences et l’acquisition des connaissances s’effectuent pour 70% « on the job », pour 20% par les interactions avec les autres et seulement pour 10% grâce à  la formation formelle.

    Entre le social learning dans sa forme la plus pure et l’apprentissage le plus formalisé, il existe toute une palette de possibilités qu’il convient de ne pas délaisser. Comme le conseille le groupe de Princeton à  l’origine du modèle 70/20/10, il convient d’adopter une démarche holistique en intégrant dans le même environnement l’informel et le formel. »

    tags: learning sociallearning humanresources kaizen feedback elearning pdca iterativelearning

    • Qu’avec le elearning 2.0 , on ne change pas vraiment de logique. A l’étage supérieur, des experts décident pour les autres de ce qu’il convient d’apprendre et de comment l’apprendre. Ce contenu est poussé vers sa cible, qui a désormais des outils pour gentiment converser à  l’étage en dessous. Cette sociabilisation n’est pas jamais vraiment pris en compte.
    • partir d’un contenu formel, le pousser vers ses cibles, « l’informaliser » ou plutôt pouvoir l€˜enrichir de commentaires, votes, propositions de chacun avant de le reformaliser.
    • L’une des pierres fondatrices des systèmes d’amélioration continue est la méthode Kaizen.  Cette méthode est basée sur le changement, l’observation des résultats, l’ajustement et la standardisation des améliorations. Changement basé sur le feedback, ajustement des comportements€¦ Cela rappelle  la substance de l’apprentissage.
    • il convient de relever que c’est l’étape « Vérifier » qui est le principal moteur de l’apprentissage.
    • cette étape est quelque chose que peu d’organisations font bien ou régulièrement. A l’inverse, elles mettent fortement l’accent sur le « Faire ». Ce qui incite les personnes à  penser que la situation est figée et que rien ne pourra changer.
    • Il faut donc expliquer et faire prendre conscience que le « Faire » est une expérimentation à  partir de laquelle nous devons apprendre. Sans véritable feedback, le système d’Iterative Learning ne peut fonctionner.
    • les éléments formels d’apprentissage ne sont pas des tables de lois gravées dans le marbre, mais bien des éléments qui doivent être essayés, commentés, adaptés, enrichies par toutes les dimensions de l’apprentissage informelle mis en place dans le système.
  • « You’ve got mail€“not. Employees of tech company Atos will be banned from sending emails under the company’s new “zero email” policy. »

    tags: email ban informationoverload infobesity socialnetworks thierrybreton atos casestudies

    • Atos has already reduced the number of internal emails by 20 percent in six months.
    • “We are producing data on a massive scale that is fast polluting our working environments and also encroaching into our personal lives,”
    • The company says by 2013, more than half of all new digital content will be the result of updates to, and editing of existing information. Middle managers spend more than 25 percent of their time searching for information, according to the company.
    • Atos is evaluating a number of new tools to replace internal email including collaborative and social media tools
    • Since we have to reward people within a reasonable timeframe, many incentives tend to focus on short-term measures
    • Stock-option and profit-sharing plans reward employees when the company does well, but the larger the company, the more difficult it becomes for people to feel that their efforts have an impact on the stock price.
    • The industrial era was built on the kind of carrot-and-stick management that rewards some behaviors and punishes others. This has been successful in a world of predictability, where work can be broken down into routine tasks that can be done according to a prescribed formul
    • We will need their heads and hearts as well as their hands.
    • extrinsic rewards, such as sales commissions or other financial rewards, do work well under certain limited conditions: when a task simply requires people to follow a formul
    • But for jobs that require complex or creative thinking, extrinsic rewards can be dangerous, because they tend to restrict people’s ability to notice things on the periphery and craft novel solutions.
    • A quick look at the history of inventors and other creative people will confirm that, while creativity and invention may be necessary components of innovation, they are not sufficient if you want to achieve both innovation and business results.
    • A good incentive system should reward people for thinking and acting like owners. So is it possible to get every worker to act as if they own the business?


      It is possible. And the answer is actually quite simple. The way to get everyone to act as if they own the business is to give them a “business within the business.”

    • How can you divide the labor in your organization to optimize for innovation rather than efficiency? The answer is to supplement divisional thinking with another approach that I call podular thinking.
    • People in a functional group tend to identify with each other more than they identify with the purpose of the organization.
    • In a podular organization, you divide labor into “businesses within the business,” each of which can function as a complete service in its own right. Since each pod functions as a small business, its focus remains outside the pod, on its customers
    • At Morning Star, workers manage themselves and report only to each other. The company provides a system and marketplace that allows workers to coordinate their activities. Every worker has suppliers and customers €“ and personal relationships €“ to consider as they go about their work.
    • Every employee writes a personal mission statement that describes how they will contribute to the company’s goal, and is also responsible for the training, resources and cooperation they need to achieve it
    • If a worker needs something, they can issue a purchase order. If someone needs help or identifies a new role that’s needed to do the job better, they can start the hiring process.
    • The discipline at Morning Star comes from a strong sense of mutual accountability
    • Morning Star is a marketplace, where every worker is a business within the business. You can read more about Morning Star on their website or in this excellent HBR article by Gary Hamel, First, Let’s Fire All the Managers.
    • Nordstrom’s employee handbook is so short and simple it can fit on an index card. It states:


      “Use your best judgment in all situations. There will be no other rules.”

    • A Nordstrom salesperson might stay in touch with customers by Twitter, email, or whatever else is convenient. The message to customers is: however you want to buy it, however you want to interact with us, we can do it that way.
    • Nordstrom culture demands that the employee put the customer before company or profit in all decisions
    • Nordstrom employees can offer the best service in the industry because every Nordstrom salesperson operates a business within the business, backed by the full support and resources of a Fortune 500 company.
    • Rational’s goal was very transparent to everyone in the company: “Make customers successful.” Customers were served by small, autonomous pods known as field teams. Each field team operated as a fully functional, stand-alone unit, with technical and business experts working closely together.
    • The cross-functional teams at Rational were a great way to build entrepreneurial skills within the company, because every team member understood every aspect of the business
    • “You could have a team that did poorly in their overall ranking even though they made their revenue target, because their customers weren’t successful in achieving their goals
    • Semco is a self-managed company. There is no HR department. Workers at Semco choose what they do as well as where and when they do it. They even choose their own salaries. Subordinates review their supervisors and elect corporate leadership. They also initiate moves into new businesses and out of old ones. The company is run like a democracy.
    • Semco is organized around the belief that employees who can participate in a company’s important decisions will be more motivated and make better choices than people receiving orders from bosses.
    • Semler says simply, “if you want people to act like adults you need to treat them like adults.”
    • One of the principles underlying Semco’s success is the idea that every business should be small enough that each worker can comprehend it as a whole system. If a business grows to more than 150 people, Semco will split it into two.
    • Nearly a quarter of Semco’s profits go to employees, but the company doesn’t decide how to distribute it. Each quarter, the profit contribution of each unit is calculated, and 23% of profits go to that units employees, who can distribute it however they wish. So far, they have always decided to distribute that money evenly to everyone.
    • The podular organization may be unusual, but it’s not a theory. It’s a fact. It can work in retail, it can work in manufacturing, it can work in technology, and it can work for a conglomerate. It can work for private as well as publicly-traded companies. It can work for a Fortune 500 company. Can it work for you? You can only find out if you’re willing to give it a chance.
    • First, they require information to be transparent and readable by everyone; second, they require principles, platforms and culture to guide individual decisions and give cohesion to the company as a whole; third, they require people who are not territorial, who are capable of open discussion and who will hold themselves and others accountable; and fourth; they require owners and managers who are capable of trusting people and teams to make good decisions and manage their “business within the business.”
  • « €˜Social business’, as IBM deems it, can benefit Human Resources, Customer Services and Product and Service Development.

    The key benefit for each area is the improved levels of communication. For HR the increased speed of conversations will result in improved quality. Furthermore the use of social media will result in reduced employee travel and staff training €“ due to an ease of access to internal knowledge. »

    tags: socialmedia hr training quality knowledge communication innovation

    • The successful business of the near future will be one that harnesses this trend to deliver improvements in products and services, as well as the customer and employee experience. At the same time, it can expect to realise substantial efficiencies in its business.”
  • « Lately, there have been several informative and helpful presentations uploaded related to using social media in HR and using social media for recruiting. Below are 10 of my favorites: »

    tags: hr socialmedia presentation

  • « Depuis son origine la DSI a été pensée sur un modèle de solidité, de sécurité (voire parfois de fermeture) et de long terme.[…]Mais force est de constater qu’en 2011, dans un environnement économique de plus en plus ouvert, toujours plus incertain, demandant plus de réactivité et où la technologie est au premier plan de l’innovation, ce modèle butte sur certaines limites. Et la gouvernance n’est pas toujours une garantie de bien faire. « 

    tags: IT innovation businessmodel governance

    • l’innovation à  la DSI doit aussi se penser en termes de refonte de son business modèle et pas uniquement en innovation technologique ou intégration de la technologie dans les processus métier comme cela a été abordé en partie 1.
    • Pression économique sur les coûts, vitesse accélérée, nouvelles frontières, fournisseurs moins pertinents€¦ il semble urgent de reconsidérer les activités de la DSI et de faire évoluer son modèle !
    • En revanche de nouvelles « zones agiles » du SI doivent fonctionner dans un mode nouveau a établir. Ces zones doivent être identifiées en fonction des enjeux de chaque entreprise.
    • Gouverner l’ensemble du système d’information de l’entreprise, jusque chez le client, dans le SaaS, sur Internet ou sur le terrain en mobilité.
    • Capitaliser sur sa double connaissance de l’entreprise et de la technologie pour mieux intégrer à  son offre les points forts du marché et carrément les commercialiser en interne de l’entreprise 
    • Renforcer le rôle l’architecture qui va devoir construire un SI supportant l’extension de l’entreprise numérique, l’ouverture de ses données (« open data ») et la croissance de ses flux d’information (« big data ») 
    • Accompagner ce changement de posture par un marketing de la DSI et de ses services, pour accélérer ce changement de posture et poursuivre l’amélioration de l’image de la DSI en interne et en externe. 
  • « These days, customer service seems to be a contradiction of words and intentions. Year after year, customers are appealing for attention, efficiency and a communicated sense of being appreciated. After all, what is the value of customer acquisition if retention itself isn’t valued? Now with social networks becoming the preferred channel of communication among connected consumers, businesses are losing ground and faith. The reality is that customers will share their experiences whether positive or negative and they will influence the decisions of others. The question is, how are you changing your service model to shape and steer experiences that deliver value to customers and also back to your business? »

    tags: socialmedia customerservice customercare socialcrm crm customerexperience customerengagement engagement customer socialcustomer NPS SPS

    • On either end, social media and customer service are either established or developing within the organization. While each exist, they do not naturally co-exist in regards to process, systems, vision, or collaborative workstreams.
    • Social media essentially exists within its own silo and is largely disconnected from other divisions.
    • When a customer tweets at the company with a problem, the social media team is either unqualified to respond or chooses only to focus on those interactions that correspond with their focus or the company’s marketing efforts.
    • Businesses must look at creating a holistic experience where customer service extends to social media, providing engagement and resolution at the time and place of the social expression.
    • part of the problem has to do with how customer service is measured or valued within the organization today.
    • The truth is that the service world has been broken for years because of the emphasis of handle time or calls per hour. Companies do not want to talk to you, and it shows. The fact is most do not want to Tweet with you either. Since they are worried about brand sentiment, they may appease you to shut you up. Sorry, shutting your customer up is not customer service and trying to expedite resolution isn’t a metric for the new world of consumer influence.
    • This isn’t about getting away from the customer or simply about solving problems. This is about creating exceptional and shareable experiences! Customer service can contribute to engagement, advocacy, loyalty, and what I call NPS 2.0 aka SPS (Social Promoter Score).
    • The result is support, loyalty, and advocacy. Additionally, the result of one simple post resulted in an array of influential press. I guess that says everything about that state of customer service. If businesses ask how to better help customers and press breaks out as a result, well€¦at least we’re on the right track.
    • Fixing customer service is not the goal here. Improving customer service and delivering an integrated experience will not only help customers feel valued, but also establish a competitive advantage. In the end, businesses that invest in customer retention and acquisition to deliver positive experiences, regardless of platform, will strengthen relationships and loyalty and additionally contribute to organic advocacy.
  • « One thing that stands out for me from this dialog is that business objectives such as cohesive strategies, phased adoptions, and cross-domain political reformation are intersecting with the idea of the “Internet” in the form of cloud computing, Web 2.0 application ecosystems, and mobility. What results is a complex set of patterns — something like an abstract mosaic. « 

    tags: enterprisesocialsoftware IT value endvalue enablingvalue enablement

    • To clarify: End values may sound rather bland or clichéd. Examples include things like cost-effective service delivery, business alignment
    • enabling values sound flashy and get a lot of media attention — cloud computing most of all, right now. But cloud is not the “endpoint of a journey” so much as a catalyst. Cloud, Web 2.0, and other Internet-related technologies are helping to transform the role of IT to that of a broker of services rather than a back-office purveyor of technology.
    • Optimization is not just about cost; it’s about relevance and value as well.
    • The end value of technology always resides outside it — in the human beings who consume it and in what they do with it.
    • They are all just tools to allow human beings to move forward more happily and more effectively in their lives and work.
  • « I recently read about the Five Top Challenges of Integrating Social Media Data with Business Applications by Elias Terman on the CTOEdge.Now it seems to me that these issues are all, or at least mostly, about how to connect old school enterprise applications of record that deal with transactions and the new school systems of engagement that deal with interactions. »

    tags: socialmedia data integration workflow transactions interactions knowledgework

    • In today’s developed economies, the significant nuances in employment concern interactions: the searching, monitoring, and coordinating required to manage the exchange of goods and services
    • jobs involving the most complex type of interactions€”those requiring employees to analyze information, grapple with ambiguity, and solve problems€”make up the fastest-growing segment
    • these systems that support interactions have to integrated with the systems of record that support transactions
    • For enterprise 2.0 to truly be an enterprise operation, it needs to take in the old with the new
  • « New research just released by Capgemini/MIT reveals that two-thirds of global enterprise companies are failing to evolve into digital enterprises. According to the report, people and culture are the biggest barriers to digital transformation. »

    tags: culture transformation change disruption study capgemini MIT IT

    • slick marketers have brainwashed senior execs into thinking that the path to digital transformation is a disruptive, revolutionary path, rather than an evolutionary process.
    • If the IT marketing people are to be believed, senior execs need to rip out their existing mission-critical tools like email and documents, and replace them with relatively unproven technologies such as blogs, wikis, and allied next-generation tools.
    • This is not digital transformation, but digital disruption, and it only serves to alienate managers and their staff
    • In the history of innovation, the « revolutionary » approach often fails, because it doesn’t take the human factor into account.
    • In lieu of a rip-and-replace strategy, companies should to take baby steps by building on the tools your organization already ha

    • By minimizing the need for workers to change their work habits, while mitigating the financial risk in investing in new and unproven technologies, a fail-safe methodology for embracing the digital transformation can be created
    • The psychology of evolutionary change is far more productive than a « rip and replace » approach
    • New research just released by Capgemini/MIT reveals that two-thirds of global enterprise companies are failing to evolve into digital enterprises.  According to the report, people and culture are the biggest barriers to digital transformation.
  • «  » Vous connaissez le trio infernal qui conduit les entreprises dans le mur, et en font perdre le contrôle ? »… » Ce sont les process, les indicateurs de performance ( les fameux KPI’s), et les reportings ». »

    tags: management kpi process reporting trust ethic

    • les entreprises ont perdu le contrôle d’elles-mêmes, surtout celles qu’on appelle les grandes entreprises, les multinationales. Elles ont souvent détruit la confiance qui a assuré le succés initial de la plupart d’entre elles
    • Dès lors qu’elles souhaitent substituer à  l’initiative, à  la bonne volonté ou au sérieux de leurs salariés des processus et des contrôles renforcés, elles font passer un message clair de défiance et tout le monde le comprend ainsi ».
    • Et plus il y a de ces contrôles et de ces KPI’s, plus les cadres en profitent pour se créer des zones de liberté.
    • pour les acteurs directement concernés, la forme taylorienne du travail est, là  encore, trés protectrice du travail.
    • En clair, plus l’acteur est incertain, plus il a de pouvoir, et moins on peut lui faire confiance.
    • être éthique c’est précisément accepter de réduire l’incertitude de son comportement, en acceptant et en respectant des  » règles du jeu » acceptées par tous.Celles qui fixent ce qui est acceptable, et ce qui ne l’est pas, dans les relations et les comportements
    • quand il faudra détricoter les process et systèmes de contrôle qui ont amené l’entreprise dans le mur, ceux qui en seront le plus capables seront précisément ceux qui les ont mis en place, c’est à  dire les managers et surtout les consultants. Il est convaincu qu’un nouveau marché s’ouvre, qui promet d’être passionnant, pour les consultants du XXIème siècle qui auront compris le virage
  • « Without having statistical data and only derived from subjective perceptions and interpretations of talks with German and French executives I like to state that E20 projects in France and in Germany are in many ways different. In the end they all follow the same vision of the socially enhanced and collaborative organization but the key drivers for the projects are as different as the challenges that go along with the adoption. »

    tags: enterprise2.0 socialbusiness france germany adoption culture bureaucracy knowledge knowledgesharing socialnetworks hierarchy processes businessprocesses coordinatination

    • Starting off with Germany €“ I see the majority of E20 projects based on a strong objective in improving the knowledge sharing in the company.
    • This might be explained by the more dezentralized structure of German organizations and the industry in general.
    • The key challenges of E20 initiatives in Germany is to convince people of the value of knowledge sharing €“ as knowledge is also seen as a highly competitive asset of both people and companies. So the success of E20 in a German-based organization lies very much upon the transformation of mindset in regards to the higher value of a knowledge-sharing co-worker. The ROI discussion of these E20 projects are therefore based on the calculation of not sharing and the lost business opportunities of the enterprise.
    • In France I see quite a number of E20 projects being built around the social
       networking idea €“ in order to enhance the organization by the layer of digital interconnection of its peers. The objective is to support adhoc collaboration and coordination along business processes.
    • the implementation of the network is at first in order to derive value from the indirect/network effects of being interconnected. This is also related to the strong notion of personal networking within the French economy €“ especially in the elite networks of bureaucrats and executives
    • for more information on the cadre system you might want to study the works of Geert Hofstede

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.

Head of People and Operations @Emakina / Ex Directeur Consulting / Au croisement de l'humain, de la technologie et du business / Conférencier / Voyageur compulsif.

Découvrez le livre que nous avons co-écrit avec 7 autres experts avec pleins de retours d'expérience pour aider managers et dirigeants

En version papier
En version numérique

Articles récents