Why Social Business Can Lead to Reinventing the Company Model
“I feel I should explain why in my previous article I suggested that we need to relook at the model of the firm in the light of Social Business and how this ends with a need to reevaluate the Porter Value Chain model for the competitive enterprise. The current meme floating among thought-leaders is that for social to have an impact in business, it needs to become part of the regular workflow of employees, customers and other participants”
Social business activity needs to occur in the flow of people’s work rather than be a separate, additional task for them to do.
The next natural step is question why we are doing the tasks in the first place and if it really makes sense in the way people engage in social business. In other words, rather than shaping social interactions to the task, you reshape the task itself to be more social.
We can then consider if the change needs to be at a granular process step or if it should really affect the larger process overall.
The next stage of awareness is the realization that changes within a particular business function is what continues to keep the organization in disconnected silos of responsibility.
Using Facebook to Predict Success on the Job
“A new study finds that profiles, status updates and comments on Facebook are valuable in predicting employee performance on the job, at least as they relate to personality characteristics. The potential liability that accompanies the use of social media in recruiting and hiring continues to be an issue, however. “
The academic study appears to be the first-ever venture into compiling statistical data to prove that information on Facebook can yield valuable personality and job-performance information — not just clues as to whether someone parties too hard or has alarming philosophies or alliances.
Bottom line, “there is now evidence that [social media] could be useful” as a job-performance predictor for recruiters and hiring managers,
However, “the characteristics could be relevant as indicators of ‘hard work,’ ‘team play,’ etc., that are hypothetically predictive of performance,” he says.
“From the HR and management perspective, you need to be real mindful that, while those Facebook posts may be giving you a look at the true person behind the resume … you could be violating a discrimination clause by looking
Gamification Boosts Employee Health Behavior, Blue Shield Argues
“Blue Shield of California finds social apps and rewards engage its employees in wellness programs, sees potential for its insurance customers.”
A major West Coast health plan has jumped on the social gaming/networking trend in fitness and wellness applications. Blue Shield of California is already offering one such program to its employees and will soon provide two more.
Recent research had shown the power of social connectedness in improving health outcomes, and mobile health apps were suddenly catching on among consumers
Blue Shield’s first move was to try an application called Shape Up Shield
that focuses on increasing physical activity. “This is an eight-week-long, social-media-fueled challenge that uses an online platform to let employees form teams, post comments in forums, set team and personal fitness goals, and give virtual ‘high fives’ for encouragement,” a Blue Shield spokesman said. “In 2011, over 1,800 Shape Up Shield participants walked, hiked and ran 600 million steps,” about 300,000 miles.
One reason for the high participation rate is the incentives offered to employees. Wellness program participants are paying $3 million a year less in their share of insurance premiums, and they’re getting a total of 2,500 “health days” off from work.
New Employees Race To Make An Impact As Short Term Results Dominate Management Thinking
“Key findings from the report found that:
Performance is the number one measure of recruitment success
New staff under pressure to make greatest impact in their first year
Employers target recruits who make good decisions, bring creativity and build good relationships with bosses and peers “
Futurestep found that the most successful new professional and managerial hires demonstrate three €˜golden keys to success’:
Decision quality – Makes accurate and good decisions
Action oriented – Is quick to take initiative
Customer focus – Is dedicated to meeting customers’ needs and expectations
But businesses’ focus on the short term means many organizations risk overlooking the valuable contributions this employee group makes over the longer term.
The study highlights a risk that employers may lose interest in new staff after twelve months, overlooking the fact that if they continue to develop and measure the impact of talented individuals, they can contribute to the long term strategic success of the business.
Here are 100 companies and organization that have published their Employee Social Media Policies or Guidelines online :
Design Principles for Complex, Unpredictable, People Oriented Systems
“An IBM Global CEO Study conducted in 2010 concluded that complexity was the primary challenge emerging out of its conversations with 1,500 CEOs and senior government officials. “CEOs told us they operate in a world that is substantially more volatile, uncertain and complex. Many shared the view that incremental changes are no longer sufficient in a world that is operating in fundamentally different ways.” “
These same CEOs cited creativity as the most important leadership quality they look for over the next five years.
Business and business schools are supposed to be all about applying hard, that is, quantitative, analytical approaches to management. What then do we mean by bringing seemingly soft topics like design and creativity to business and why is it so important in today’s world?
Analytical approaches work well
when you have a pretty good understanding of the product you are developing or when you are dealing with a well defined problem
But, they do not work so well when dealing with highly complex systems with fast changing, interacting components, where it is much less clear what is going on in the present, let alone how things will evolve into the future. We need different principles and processes to address this class of highly complex problems, many based on disruptive innovations which we have not encountered before
In truth, design has spread like gas to almost all facets of human activity, from science and education to politics and policymaking. For a simple reason: one of design’s most fundamental tasks is to help people deal with change
What do we mean by applying design principles to complex, unpredictable, people oriented systems and problems?
The first is flexibility and adaptability. If you look at complex systems
as a kind of spectrum, with natural biological systems €“ e.g., living organisms, ecosystems and evolution – at one end and physically engineered systems – e.g., bridges, airplanes and microprocessors – at the other, socio-technical systems fall someplace in between
But the mechanisms to increase robustness will in turn make the system considerably more complex.
This balancing act between complexity and robustness is never done.
Quality of experience is the second major design principle I’d like to discuss. The industrial sector of the economy is oriented toward the production of physical goods. Product excellence and competitive costs are its key design objectives
But, socio-technical systems are oriented toward people and services. While product excellence and competitive costs are also important to services, they are not enough.
While advances in technology are now enabling us to bring major innovations to services, most of the really hard issues are not technical at all. They are human
The bulk of research and innovation in services has to take place in the marketplace, where the people who consume the services are. The marketplace is truly the research lab for innovation in services, the place where new service ideas have to be developed, prototyped and tested.
Finally, let me talk about the central role of marketing and communications as a design principle, arguably the least understood such principle.
You have to engage your audience in a conversation about the future you are after. You have to gain their trust by clearly telling them what’s in your mind, your aspirations, your questions, your doubts, your frustrations, what you know and what you don’t know.
Advances in technology, – faster, more powerful, less expensive, – are concrete and visible. Design is subtle, more subjective, more open to human interpretation. But, as our increasingly advanced technologies enable us to build larger, more capable, more complex systems, the role of design becomes ever more important. It
E20C Workshop: E20 & OE
Nous on fait la Révolution ! Et vous ?
“On aura beau s’évertuer à créer ou à animer une communauté autour d’un objectif, d’un produit ou d’un service particulier ; c’est limite peine perdue si on n’essaie pas de savoir à qui l’on s’adresse. Il est de fait hautement nécessaire de savoir cibler la communauté dans sa psychologie, sa culture et surtout à travers son histoire.
Prenez par exemple deux types de communautés que nous connaissons à priori assez bien : une communauté française et une communauté américaine.”
Using social media for onboarding
“Last year, I looked at new hire practices and found some interesting methods:
Ensuring new hires understand the shadow or informal part of the organization through the use of tools such as network maps (Jon Katzenbach, Senior Partner of Booz & Company, author of The Wisdom of Teams).
Pairing with another worker or even tripling with two experienced workers and getting to work immediately, in order to reduce formal training (Menlo Innovations)”
- Providing access to an online knowledge base.
- Connecting to an internal social network to connect online & ask questions.
- Connect People
- Connect with Social Media (less hierarchical than other forms of communication).
- Start the process as early as possible
Allow Community to be the cornerstone of the onboarding process.
Use the tools you have already for social learning. Focus on building community for onboarding.
As new hires come across work “exceptions”, they will need to leverage a community of peers to deal with these types of problems for which training does not prepare them.
You should get new hires to share their learning and narrate their work via blogs (one blog, multi-user) by just making it a part of the work process.
Here is the next revolution in records and records management?
“What is happening is that records management is about to move beyond compliance. The dream of information management and knowledge management is to unleash or extract the value or a tangible financial return. To do this, there has to be a way to value the information and records. The change is about finding a way to “value” their records so that they can be treated like an asset and managed appropriately.”
Inclusive Social Business – IBM Social Business Insights Blog
“Because a social business is fundamentally about enabling new levels of interaction among people, it’s important to understand the demographics of potential users and tie it into some real numbers. As of October 31, 2011, the global population was 7 billion1 . This includes an incredibly diverse variety of individuals with vastly differing abilities:”
More than 1 billion people have disabilities2; a number that will continue to increase because of advances in healthcare and longer life expectancies. Disabilities are often divided into four categories: visual, hearing, mobility, and cognitive. (We’ll talk about these more in a future blog post.)
More than 600 million people are over the age of 603.
which means that up to 6.5 billion don’t. In the U.S. alone, over 55 million citizens speak a language other than English in their homes5.
· People with no or low literacy: 793 million worldwide6
If your tools, websites, applications, and collateral aren’t accessible, you are, by default, excluding a significant percentage of your potential collaboration pool €“ which isn’t good business any way you look at it. Inclusive social business should value every voice and every idea.
If you’re becoming a social business, the key question to ask yourself is: Are you making the most of the wealth of knowledge and expertise you can tap by including all potential collaborators?
Management Secrets: Core Beliefs of Great Bosses | Inc.com
A few years back, I interviewed some of the most successful CEOs in the world in order to discover their management secrets. I learned that the “best of the best” tend to share the following eight core beliefs.
A few years back, I interviewed some of the most successful CEOs in the world in order to discover their management secrets. I learned that the “best of the best” tend to share the following eight core beliefs.
1. Business is an ecosystem, not a battlefield.
2. A company is a community, not a machine.
3. Management is service, not control.
4. My employees are my peers, not my children.
5. Motivation comes from vision, not from fear.
6. Change equals growth, not pain.
7. Technology offers empowerment, not automation.
8. Work should be fun, not mere toil.
Why management rocks, and leadership sucks
“The past 24 hours I had a fierce conversation on leadership and management, and I love how just everyone joined in on Twitter; especially those that disagree with me because they teach me most in the shortest amount of time
I started it with
Every one wants to be a leader, but no one wants to be led #leadership
– Martijn Linssen (@MartijnLinssen) April 22, 2012”
Managers and leaders are made from different stuff. They can be both, but that’s an exception rather than rule
Managers seem to take the more task / activity orientation towards them, leaders get involved in conceptual / strategic matters
In general, or let’s say popular opinion, if you’re bad “at it” you get to be called a manager, otherwise a leader – and vice versa
managers treat you like a bonzai tree
Leaders stimulate you to reach the very best in your Real Self
Leaders are needed most where people interaction is highest, beit among employees or in between customers and employees
Can’t have leaders in assembly lines, you need managers there.
Can’t have leaders for your old employees who only have 5 year more to go until pension, already counting down since 10 years before that.
Can’t have leaders be nice and kind and inspiring when you need to lay off people, cut to the bone on the verge of surviva
I think we like leaders because to us they represent the good, the nice, and the lovely. I think we overdo all this leadership worshipping on our road to Social euphoria, and make asses of ourselves when we play the evangalyst role
trying to assess their value for a company
Les défauts du management à la française vus de l’étranger « Vupar
Les baromètres que nous réalisons dans les groupes internationaux d’origine française révèlent que les salariés allemands ou anglo-saxons sont très critiques à l’égard des modes de management hexagonaux. Ils sont désarçonnés par le manque de concertation et reprochent aux managers français de ne pas se soucier suffisamment du terrain
la distance psychologique entre le top management et les salariés est plus grande en France qu’ailleurs
La plupart d’entre eux ont le sentiment d’être payés pour savoir. Ils font partie d’une caste qui progresse en s’éloignant du terrain
Ils réfléchissent seuls et pensent ne pas avoir le droit à l’erreur, alors qu’aux Etats-Unis les managers cherchent à impliquer le maximum de monde dans la recherche de solutions
En France, les dirigeants interrogés mettent en avant la liberté dont ils bénéficient pour prendre des décisions et choisir leur équipe, explique Philippe Cavat, directeur général de DDI France. Quand les managers britanniques évoquent plus volontiers leur participation au développement des collaborateurs qui ont du talent ou leur capacité d’influence
Les objectifs ne sont pas clairs et le feed back est souvent inexistant. Nous sommes dans une culture de l’implicite
Le système éducatif français est conçu pour faire émerger une élite, affirme-t-il. Mais, du coup, il engendre chez les élèves un fort individualisme et des difficultés à travailler en groupe.
En France, nous avons le culte du chef qui sait tout. La culture de l’ingénieur prédomine. Les cadres sont trop souvent choisis pour leur connaissance du métier. Ils sont plus à l’aise devant un problème technique que face à un souci relationnel ou managérial
Les défauts du management à la française vus de l’étranger
“Autoritaire, nombriliste, mauvais communicant et pas franchement intéressé par les aspects concrets de l’activité de ses collaborateurs. C’est le portrait peu flatteur du manager français qui se dégage des récentes enquêtes internationales. Toute la hiérarchie en prend pour son grade. Les cadres dirigeants comme les managers des niveaux intermédiaires ou de proximité. Les salariés interrogés par TNS Sofres en 2007 sont, par exemple, deux fois moins nombreux en France qu’aux Etats-Unis à penser que leur direction est à leur écoute. Seulement 45 % des Français estiment que leurs efforts sont reconnus, 37 % qu’ils sont récompensés. Contre, respectivement, 75 % et 70 % des Américains. Les Français sont également moins nombreux à estimer que les circuits de décision de leur entreprise sont clairs.
Measuring the Forces of Long Term Change
“But, while the dramatic advances in digital technologies have been well measured and quantified, their impact on firms, economies and individuals has been more anecdotal. We talk about how this digital revolution has been transforming just about every aspect of business, society and our personal lives, bringing us both near-magical products and services as well as their accompanying creative destruction and pain. But, how can we quantify this revolution beyond its technological foundations?”
But, while the dramatic advances in digital technologies have been well measured and quantified, their impact on firms, economies and individuals has been more anecdotal
The economic performance of US companies has been steadily declining over the past decades, as measured by Return on Assets (ROA)
, a general indicator of a company’s profitability. It is now 75 percent lower than the levels in 1965.
At the same time, labor productivity
– the goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time, – has continued to rise and is now more than double what it was in 1965, as you would expect given the technology advances during this period.
The balance of power has been shifting from companies to increasingly well-informed consumers and well-educated workers.
En fait c’est quoi la gouvernance de l’information ?
“Définir de façon précise et universelle ce que l’on entend par gouvernance de l’information prendrait des mois car chaque personne est susceptible d’avoir une perception très personnelle, très intime de ce terme. Nous avons donc décidé de prendre une voie plus simple, qui s’inscrit d’ailleurs dans l’ADN même de ce qu’on appelle la gouvernance de l’information :”
La gouvernance de l’information est une discipline « simplement » complexe, une approche analytique mènerait à une consommation d’énergie faramineuse. Un raisonnement systémique permettrait de suivre les phases de changement humaines, et de travailler par couches de plus en plus fine.
L’information est à considérer comme étant indépendamment un document papier, un document numérique, un élément ou ensemble d’une base de données, un flux transactionnel, une vidéo, une bande sonore, une photo, un commentaire, un email, une note donnée à un article, un échange de messagerie instantanée, etc. Tout ce qui a une valeur pour au moins un membre de l’organisation à un moment donné.
Une démarche globale de gouvernance de l’information provoque très souvent un changement. Or tout changement s’accompagne d’une remise en cause. Et toute remise en cause consiste en partie à « détruire » une perception, ou une idée préconçue. Accepter une remise en cause est le premier pas vers une meilleure maîtrise de l’information.
Elle ne se résume pas à un concept marketing ou de vente. Elle n’est pas exclusivement orientée documents ou données. Et elle n’est pas exclusivement pensée en termes de gestion de risque. En réalité, elle couvre l’ensemble du cycle de vie de l’information, favorise la création de valeur et diminue les risques. la gouvernance de l’information est une discipline.
la gouvernance de l’information est une transformation culturelle de l’organisation, où l’influence joue un grand rôle. L’apport de services doit être particulièrement adapté aux processus opérationnels existant dans l’organisation et la valeur ajoutée de la démarche tient dans la capacité à rester global, tout en restituant une vue rare et originale de l’organisation étudiée.
INFOGRAPHIC: How Office Workers Waste Time in Meetings About Meetings | The Undercover Recruiter
Why Meetings Kill Productivity
“How often have you sat through a meeting and said to yourself, “what a waste of time, I could be doing something better!” If your answer is yes, you are not alone. Meetings take up an ever-increasing amount of employee’s, and particularly manager’s time. My experience in working with executives and managers is that 40-50 percent of their time is taken up with meetings, that either they call, or have to attend. Which leaves precious little time left to actually get work done.”
A variation of Parkinson’s Law applied to meetings goes something like this: “Meeting activities expand to fill the time available.”
John Kenneth Galbraith once said, “meetings are indispensable when you don’t want to do anything.”
The study concluded that the average worker actually worked only three days per week or about 1.5 hours per day. The study identified that the rest of the working time was “wasted,” with unproductive meetings heading the list.
argues most meetings are mediocre and not necessary, “not about coordination but about a bureaucratic excuse-making and the kabuki dance of company politics. We’re now addicted to meetings that insulate us from the work we ought to be doing.
He outlines three types of meetings: convenience, formality and social in which a false sense of urgency is created.
He presents 7 principles for good meetings if they need to be held. Of these principles, the most striking are:
- Meet only to support a decision that has already been made; do not use the meetings to make decisions;
- The meeting should always produce a committed action plan;
- A meeting should never be held for informational purposes.
The difference between a community manager and a social media manager
“In the past, I used to think that community management and social media management are one and the same thing. It wasn’t until I actually started working as a community manager and then later as a social media manager, did I realize that there is actually a difference between these two titles even though the lines do sometimes blur.”
A social media manager specifically manages the social media accounts for a company. They help all the departments fulfill their own missions
a social media manager has a helicopter view of social media as a whole in a strategic role:
a community manager to be a user interface with a face.
I foresee Community Management becoming more internal, while the traditional community management role evolves into dedicated consumer/customer support and the Social Media one becomes wholly marketing/advertising/product awareness focused.
TIBCO Upgrades tibbr with GEO and Other New Capabilities
“TIBCO launched tibbr, a heavy duty and secure social platform a year ago and is approaching 1M users at companies like Macy’s, KPMG, and shipping giant OOCL. Now they are adding a number of new features. There are five guiding principles in this effort. First, you need to be able to have users get started right away and it needs to be easy to use. The consumer Web has set this expectation and reduced budgets demand it. Gone are the days of six month IT projects and extensive employee training programs. Here is a sample user’s view of tibbr.”
First, you need to be able to have users get started right away and it needs to be easy to use
Second, tibbr provides the option for cloud technology or on-premise installations
Third, context has become king more than content. They have introduced subject filters to their activity streams so you take out the fire hose effect
Fifth, you need to make IT happy. So they have focused on such issues as compliance and risk management.
Tibbr GEO is turns physical places into data hubs that can immediately stream important insights relevant to that specific place. Instead of checking in to a location, the location checks into you €“ and brings you the relevant information, helping you discover important insights and work faster wherever you are.
tibbr GEO gives companies the ability to tag important places, whether in the enterprise or as part of the extended enterprise. As tibbr users approach these places, they’re automatically presented relevant in-stream information. The airline industry is a good example.
Talent Management Challenges In Small and Medium-Sized Organizations
“The Kapta team has been conducting detailed interviews with Human Resources leaders and managers in our target market: organizations with fewer than 500 employees. We have interviewed over 100 HR vice presidents, directors, and managers in the following locations: Colorado, California, New York, Massachusetts, Georgia, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. Globally, we have spoken with HR professionals in the UK, Germany, Egypt, Austria, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, Israel and India. “
Social intranet user adoption: how to encourage usage in your organization
“Earlier this month I gave a couple of webinars on encouraging user adoption of your social intranet. As long as we’ve been building intranet software and as long as we’ve been going to conferences, the theme of adoption is always present. And for good reason.
This blog post covers some of the ideas about adoption, what it is, why it matters, and how to encourage it.”
“Driving adoption”, by the way, is one of my least favourite expressions. It sounds like driving cattle. Or herding cattle.
Usage is contextual €“ it depends entirely on your organization’s goals and the intranet’s purpose.
As we go through some of the possible types of things your users could be doing on your intranet, you can think about which purpose these align with.
Now we have a good handle on adoption (a measure of usage over time)
In a system of record, you’re transacting with records (data). In a system of engagement, you’re interacting with people.Therefore, there’s a social dynamic. That’s why we call it a social intranet after all.
We believe that understanding the value of your intranet is directly related to how you frame the problem of your intranet in the first place
. And we believe that your social intranet is a manifestation of your company’s communication and collaboration network.
So really simplified, increased users in your system is okay, but increased usage is better. And usage, as we already talked about, will have different value both individually for your users and for the organization as a whole.
And what’s interesting about the two types is that extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation both have their place in the world, one isn’t right and the other is wrong €“ you just need to know when to use them. Incentives (or appeals to extrinsic motivation) can be really effective. If you’re incentivizing the right task.
Well, I’m going to suggest that while you may have wanted to “drive adoption” what you are actually trying to do is stimulate the diffusion of innovation €“ that innovation being your social intranet and all of its associated interactions inside your organization.
Factor 1: Relative advantage
How improved is the innovation over the previous generation/competition?
Factor 2: Compatibility
How does the innovation get assimilated into the individuals life?
Factor 3: Complexity/Simplicity
How easy or difficult is it to use?
Factor 4: Trialability
How easy is it to experiment with as you adopt it?
Factor 5: Observability
How visible is the usage to others? Who’s using it? What influence do they have?
Last, but certainly not least, think about your users as customers and adopt a marketing approach. Put on your marketing hat, as uncomfortable as that hat might be for some of you.
It’s not uncommon to have a mixture of mandatory and voluntary task dynamics at play with your social intranet. Make sure you’re paying attention to what’s a mandatory task and what’s a voluntary task.
For the mandatory ones, you are hopefully working with more algorithmic tasks €“ you can incent these and perhaps rely on good old fashioned carrot and sticks to get people onto the intranet.
For the voluntary ones, you’re dealing with more heuristic tasks and you can’t “drive adoption” like you can drive cattle. You may not have the ability to incent people, they will have to be internally motivated.
- How do you quantify your intranet’s adoption (usage/time as a % of total)?
- What kind of usage (think tasks, activities: verbs, not nouns) are you trying to gain?
- How does that usage align with 5 purposes (and more broadly speaking, your org’s strategy)?
- Which of your tasks are mandatory & algorithmic? What extrinsic rewards might apply?
- Which of your tasks are voluntary & heuristic?
- For each of the voluntary & heuristic tasks, how will you address their:
- relative advantage; to be better than previous intranets & competing systems?
- compatibility; to work with the way people work?
- simplicity/complexity; to be easy to use?
- trialability; to be easy to try and learn?
- observability; to be visible to others and spread throughout your org?
- What’s your plan to make this happen, who’s responsible, and when is it getting done?
- How will you know when you’re done? (see Question 1 €“ how do you quantify success?)
- And repeat€¦
Returning to a New World of Ever-Present Work
“Award-winning columnist and author of Distracted, Maggie Jackson offers her insights about “The @ Work State of Mind Project”€”a joint effort of gyro and Forbes Insights. Surveying 543 business decision-makers, we found that boundaries of time and space that once defined the workplace no longer exist. “
Does this blurring of boundaries signify an easy return to a pre-industrial past, when we lived over the store or on the farm? Are we sliding seamlessly back into integrated lives? No. For most of human history, work and home were blended due to the restriction of experience. Geographic distance and the rhythms of sun and season limited the circumference of our work and home lives. Trade, like war, ceased at sunset. Entire lives centered on the same corner of earth.
Today we multitask in nanoseconds on a global scale, moving restlessly in thought and body across the planet. Forty percent of offices lie vacant on any given day, according to Deloitte.
Long weeks within a single community are unusual; a full day within a single neighborhood is becoming rare,
Throughout the day, the average worker switches tasks on average every three minutes
the @Work study reveals that among today’s decision-makers, a sense of accomplishment correlates with an ability to separate work and personal life. Without at least a few borderlines, we cannot find terra firma in an unshackled world.
A constant negotiation of attention is our foremost challenge
we are often slow, prone to error and intellectually half-asleep when we multitask.
Now liberated from the confines of space and time, will we be remembered by future generations as the people who forgot the art of the limit?
DE “L’APPRENDRE” A “L’APPRENDRE A APPRENDRE” : existe-t-il des lois d’apprentissage ?
“«Comment m’y prendre pour qu’ils s’approprient cette nouvelle notion, ce nouveau geste professionnel, de la manière la plus efficiente possible ?»… questionnement incessant du formateur, de l’intervenant, dans la préparation de sa formation.
Comment fait-on pour apprendre ? Comment intégrer ce “comment apprendre” pour “apprendre à apprendre” ?
Quelques pistes, synthèse de synthèses de réflexions… pour faire suite à un échange récent avec un jeune étudiant en sciences de l’éducation.”
Dernièrement, les recherches se focalisent sur les manières d’apprendre par le biais des nouvelles technologies et notamment sur le fait que beaucoup -enfants en premier lieu – pensent apprendre en balayant une succession d’informations sur le net : les dernières recherches tendent notamment à démontrer que “ce multitche non contrôlé” est une illusion et que notre cerveau atteint ses limites en termes d’intégration et de captations des informations :
D’autres recherches se sont par la suite orientées sur les distinctions entre les mécanismes d’apprentissage chez l’enfant à opposer aux mécanismes d’apprentissage chez l’adulte. Sont ainsi distinguées “PEDAGOGIE” (pour l’enfant) et “ANDRAGOGIE” (pour l’adulte)
Il convient toutefois de relativiser le mot “loi” en tel domaine, car en formation, rien ne vaut mieux que l’adaptation au plus près de l’approche de l’apprenant : une formation, un mode d’apprentissage ne peuvent s’appliquer de manière universelle, telle une lo
Les “lois” de l’apprentissage constituent alors davantage les fondements d’un “apprendre à apprendre” qui ne prendront véritablement de sens que lorsque leurs applications seront personnalisées, pour replacer l’apprenant au coeur de ses mécanismes d’apprentissage propres
- en déstructurant-restructurant ses connaissances
- en agissant
- en résolvant des problèmes en petits groupes
- en échangeant au sein d’un groupe
- en ayant un projet d’apprentissage
- en prenant du plaisir dans un climat de confiance
- en maîtrisant ses propres stratégies d’apprentissage